Do you really understand what the main chip types
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In general, there are two ways to classify a chip. Generally, it is classified according to the function of the chip, but sometimes it is divided into different types according to the integrated circuit used.
According to the function, it can be divided into four types, mainly memory chips, microprocessors, standard chips and complex system-on-chip (SoCs). According to the type of integrated circuit, it can be divided into three categories, namely digital chip, analog chip, and hybrid chip.
Functionally, semiconductor memory chips store data and programs on computers and data storage devices. A random-access memory (RAM) chip provides a temporary workspace, while a flash chip can hold information permanently unless the information is actively deleted. Read-only memory (ROM) and programmable read-only memory (PROM) chips cannot be modified. The erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable read-only memory (EEPROM) chips can be modified.
The microprocessor includes one or more central processing units (CPUs). Computer servers, personal computers (PCs), tablets, and smartphones may all have multiple CPUs. The 32-bit and 64-bit microprocessors in PCs and servers are based on x86, POWER and SPARC chip architectures. Mobile devices typically use an ARM chip architecture. The less powerful 8-, 16-, and 24-bit microprocessors are used primarily in toys and automobiles.
Standard chips, also known as commercial integrated circuits, are simple chips for executing repetitive processing. These chips are mass-produced and are commonly used in simple-to-use devices such as barcode scanners. The commercial IC market is characterized by low-profit margins and is dominated by large semiconductor manufacturers in Asia.
SoC is a new type of chip that is most popular among manufacturers. In the SoC, all the electronic components required for the entire system are built into a single chip. SoCs are more extensive than microcontroller chips, which typically combine CPUs with RAM, ROM, and input/output (I/O) devices. In smartphones, SoCs also integrate graphics, camera, audio, and video processing functions. A three-chip solution can also be implemented by adding a management chip and a radio chip.
Another way to classify chips is to use the integrated circuits used. Most computer processors currently use digital circuits. These circuits typically combine transistors and logic gates. Sometimes a microcontroller is added. Digital circuits typically use digital discrete signals based on a binary scheme. Two different voltages are used, each representing a different logic value.
But this does not mean that the analog chip has been completely replaced by a digital chip. The power chip usually uses an analog chip. Wideband signals still require analog chips, and they are still used as sensors. In analog chips, voltage and current are constantly changing at points specified in the circuit. Analog chips typically include transistors and passive components such as inductors, capacitors, and resistors. Analog chips are more prone to small changes in noise or voltage, which can cause some errors.
Hybrid circuit semiconductors are a typical digital chip with the technology to process analog and digital circuits. The microcontroller may include an analog to digital converter (ADC) for connecting an analog chip, such as a temperature sensor. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) allows the microcontroller to generate an analog voltage that produces sound through an analog device.
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